Monday, August 24, 2020

World War I: The Failure of The Schlieffen Plan Essays -- von Schlieff

In 1914, the war to put to shame all other wars started; it would later get known as World War 1. Each significant force in Europe got engaged with it sooner or later. What every one of these forces had were singular war plans which expressed how they would transcend their foes and guarantee triumph. Lamentably for a few, not these plans were made similarly. In contrast to different forces of Europe, Germany had made just one arrangement known as the Schlieffen Plan. The Schlieffen Plan had been made to be utilized as the ideal apparatus to winning a war, tragically the arrangement had been conceived from the self-importance of Alfred von Schlieffen and later changed by Helmuth von Moltke. Because of how the Schlieffen Plan was both made and modified, both von Schlieffen and von Moltke were destined to bring Germany just disappointment in a multi-front war. In 1888, Kaiser Wilhelm II rose to the seat of the German Empire and started another time of remote undertaking arrangements for Germany. After two years, in 1890, Wilhelm excused the German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Bismarck had joined the different nineteenth century German Kingdoms and made the German Empire of the late nineteenth century. Bismarck had likewise assisted with fashioning different partnerships all through Europe so as to keep up the German political and military position ideal with numbers. In under two decades time, Wilhelm had basically annihilated a large portion of the coalition frameworks Bismarck had made and set Germany in a place where it was both aligned with the more fragile significant forces of Europe and off guard when it came to numbers. Wilhelm went from having France, the adversary of Germany in the nineteenth century, disconnected to having Germany about separated strategically and encompassed by adversaries. In 1904, the adjusted d... ... whittling down, 1870-1916. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kennedy, Paul M. 1979. The War plans of the extraordinary forces, 1880-1914. London: Allen and Unwin. Ritter, Gerhard. 1979. The Schlieffen plan: investigate of a legend. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. Bodleian Libray. â€Å"Entente Cordiale.† Last Accessed October 6. 2011. Fawcett, Bill. 2006. The most effective method to lose a fight: absurd plans and incredible military bungles. New York: Harper. Mombauer, Annika. 2001. Helmuth von Moltke and the inceptions of the First World War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ousby, Ian. 2002. The way to Verdun: World War I's most groundbreaking fight and the imprudence of patriotism. New York: Doubleday. Shapiro, Seymour, and Gerhard Ritter. 1959. The Schlieffen Plan. Military Affairs. 23 (2): 107-108.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Illegal immigration Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Unlawful migration - Essay Example Advocates typically contend for unlawful movement expressing different advantages that are gotten by the US while the others deliver contentions on how it influences numerous parts by antagonistically forming the social, monetary and political scene (Ledbetter 46). It is significant however to consider why settlers leave their nations in any case. There is no uncertainty that unlawful workers advantage US in an assortment of ways while likewise having negative impacts; be that as it may, the issue lies in the net impact where the negatives far exceed the positives. As indicated by the Commission on Civil Rights (U.S.) there are approximately 12 million illicit workers in the United States with Hispanic populace taking 80% of aggregate (28). Then again the absolute number of foreigners, lawful and in any case is in excess of 38 million implying that the unlawful ones hold a third. Similar measurements show that by 2060 and at the present pace of movement, the US will have a disturbing absolute populace of 470 million (49). Thinking about these numbers, it is imperative to value a few realities that structure the premise of relocation into the United States. Neediness from local nations. The facts demonstrate that numerous individuals who hazard heading out to the United States wrongfully target carrying on with a superior life. The reason for this is neediness and the majority of these foreigners are from poor families in Mexico, Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe (LeMay 114). The worldwide destitution circumstance is needing and many creating nations add to mass movement to the United States. What these individuals search for the most part are employments which are in certain nations horribly rare whether one is knowledgeable or not. Benefit rationale in US organizations. Illicit settlers because of their absence of work licenses become immediately retained into ventures and organizations that offer them low wages consequently. These enterprises do as such to decrease on compensation consumption and offering of advantages like protection which would something else

Friday, July 24, 2020

SCRAM Ankle Bracelet Measures Blood Alcohol

SCRAM Ankle Bracelet Measures Blood Alcohol Addiction Alcohol Use Drunk Driving Print How the SCRAM Ankle Bracelet Measures Blood Alcohol By Buddy T facebook twitter Buddy T is an anonymous writer and founding member of the Online Al-Anon Outreach Committee with decades of experience writing about alcoholism. Learn about our editorial policy Buddy T Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on May 17, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on October 20, 2019  Jedrzej Kaminski / EyeEm/Getty Images More in Addiction Alcohol Use Drunk Driving Binge Drinking Withdrawal and Relapse Children of Alcoholics Addictive Behaviors Drug Use Nicotine Use Coping and Recovery Electronic ankle bracelets have been an effective way to monitor people under house arrest, and are now used to measure alcohol consumption by repeat offenders. The Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitor, or SCRAM, reads the blood alcohol content of the person wearing it every 30 minutes and reports those readings to supervising agencies.?? The SCRAM is not only used by the judicial system but has also been used with some success by alcohol treatment providers to monitor the alcohol consumption of patients. The SCRAM is used to help patients maintain compliance with abstinence-based programs and identify patients that need further intervention.?? Technology has advanced significantly since SCRAM first began offering alcohol monitoring systems to agencies in 1997. The company now offers two different devices - one that measures blood-alcohol content through the skin and another that provides remote breath testing to supervising agencies. Different Types of SCRAM Monitors The device that tests alcohol consumption through the skin (transdermal testing) is called SCRAM CAM (continuous alcohol monitoring). The device is strapped around the offenders ankle and sends test results to the base unit located in the offenders home.?? Originally, the base unit communicated the test results to the supervising agency through the offenders telephone landline. Now the base unit can use cell phone or Internet connections. If the offender is sentenced to home confinement or is given a curfew, the SCRAM CAM can also monitor for compliance. The device eliminates the offenders ability to miss a test or drink around testing schedules.?? SCRAM Remote Breath Tester A remote handheld device takes a photograph of the person has they blow into the machine, and uses facial recognition software to make sure the person taking the test is the person under supervision. The remote breath tester also contains GPS technology which will record the GPS coordinates of the machine each time it conducts a test. If the offender misses a scheduled test, the machine records the GPS location at the time of the missed test. Problems With SCRAM Monitors In the early years of its use, the SCRAM devices had some limitations and problems. Some of these problems included:?? Being too sensitive and giving false positivesDevices could be removed without providing an alertWould not detect some low level drinking eventsCould report false tamper alerts These problems were noted in a series of studies of the alcohol monitoring devices funded by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The research was conducted by programs monitoring drunk drivers and other alcohol-involved offenders several states. One of the problems reported with alcohol monitoring devices was the reluctance of probation officers and caseworkers to participate in the program because they did not believe they would work. In the New York 8th Judicial District, they found that if they convinced the doubting agents to wear the devices and test them themselves, they soon became advocates for the program.?? SCRAM Can Lower Recidivism Rates Another NHTSA-funded study looked at the use of SCRAM and recidivism among drunk driving offenders and concluded that the device was effective in monitoring alcohol abstinence. It found that the device could cut down on the need for probation or other court officers to do in-home monitoring, leading to reduced costs.??   The study also reported that offenders who remain abstinent while going through alcohol treatment programs had better outcomes compared to those who were not monitored and not abstinent.??

Friday, May 22, 2020

Utilitarianism And Its Basic Concepts - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 833 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2019/08/08 Category Ethics Essay Level High school Tags: Utilitarianism Essay Did you like this example? Utilitarianism concentrates on the outcome of an action, which means that it determines in what is right or wrong based on the consequences of what this action brings about. If the action is the proper one then it maximizes utility/happiness and reduce suffering according to the typical conception of this principle of classical utilitarianism. As mentioned, the main goal of this ethical framework is to maximize happiness of the largest amount of people, but this goal has brought a lot of controversy between different groups. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Utilitarianism And Its Basic Concepts" essay for you Create order It has impacted societies, communities and governments around the world for centuries; even the life and ideas of a simple man in the streets have been also affected by this moral concept. Unquestionably, this ethical framework has not been dismissed from discussions and debates that concern not only to moral philosophers but society in general because of all the positive and negative aspects involved in the decision making of different alternatives, as well as the dilemma of the right vs. the wrong of the decision made. That is why it is crucial to analyze these positive aspects such as the increase of overall pleasure/happiness and the contemplation of circumstances as well as the negative ones such as the complexity of calculating the amount of happiness produced, the lack of foresight, the time uncertainty and the one that personally concerns me the most which is the balance of this utility/happiness over harm. It is undeniable that happiness has an inherent huge worth, we cannot say that there is something negative about happiness. So, utilitarianism helps us to understand and accept that the right line of action is the one that guide us to accomplish the highest level of happiness and the minimum level of suffering. It also guide us to conclude that for example stealing is a wrong action for the damage it causes to everyone involved no matter in what part of the world or what culture since it is a universal principle. Additionally, this ethical framework offers a single and clear criteria to justify our beliefs and moral decisions, so before making any decision we can bring up the question of what global amount of utility it is going to contribute to make our own calculations and to compare with the different alternatives we have to finally decide what is right and what is wrong. Despite the positive aspects previously mentioned about the ethical doctrine of utilitarianism, we have to recognize and acknowledge that this principle has received lots of negative criticism. First of all, the calculation made to achieve the global happiness/utility produced by the different alternatives for decision making is a tremendously difficult task since these alternatives are composed of certain events which we do not know in reality if they are going to occur or not. We do not have a high level of certainty of what is going to happen in the future since it is an unpredictable ethical theory. For example, if we imagine a hypothetical situation where someone is in need of any type of benefit, lets say a financial one, and this individual or applicant decides to bribe the financial company manager in need of a good credit score to apply for a loan or a mortgage, so in this case how we can measure the happiness that the money will cause in the manager and the happiness that will cause in the applicant or how we can compare them; or what if the bribe is discovered and made public, or how we can balance the happiness or unhappiness that many other people will feel because of the loss of confidence and honesty of the financial company staff, the applicant and possibly their families and friends. And the last one, which personally is the one that concerns me the most which is the balance of utility/happiness over harm. There is a well-known saying or common quote from Machiavelli which says that the end justify the means which kind of makes reference to the impersonality in the distribution of happiness, since to maximize it, it really does not seem to matter how it is going to be distributed, some individuals can obtain a lot of happiness/utility and other can obtain very little or some can obtain it at the expense of other people, perhaps violating basic human rights or sacrificing innocents. Utilitarianism has been accepted for so many people, cultures, communities and societies around the world simple because it seems to be relatively simple to apply in the process of decision making as well as the dilemma of the right actions vs. the wrong ones. However, personally I feel it would be great if another principle can be widely applied which not focuses only on the results but also on the rules or the process to make it happen, since as I mentioned previously with the example of the saying of Niccolo Machiavelli where a good outcome simply will kind of excuse any wrong action.

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Essay On Sex Discrimination In The Workplace - 1014 Words

1. Should transgender employees be considered by the courts to be a protected class under Title VII s prohibition of sex discrimination in the workplace? I agree that transgender employee should be considered by the courts to be a protected class under Title VII’s prohibition of sex discrimination in the workplace. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 makes it illegal to discriminate against someone on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, or sex. Sex refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women; while, gender refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women.(World Health Org.) A†¦show more content†¦1. The employee is in a protected class (based on race, gender, and so on). 2. The employee was qualified for the position. 3. The employee was rejected for the position --the candidate was not hired, or the employee was not promoted or was fired, and, 4. An employee outside of the protected class was selected for the position, or the employer continued to look for candidates. Roberts protected class would be gender and from the facts of the case Robert did not have any complaints from his peers or other workers prior to his change in the beginning of the school year. However it is not clear from the facts stated here. Roberts prevails in the first two prongs but is likely to fail in the third and fourth. The school did not terminate Roberts nor were they looking for another candidate to fill his position. Instead, Officer Roberts was summoned to CCSD police department headquarters and required to sit and read the memo prohibited CCSD police department employees from using children s restrooms unless prior authorization was secured from the school principal. Therefore, Roberts would not have be able to establish enough evidence based on these facts to form a prima facie case of discrimination. Nevertheless, Roberts has a cliam for a hostle enivornment. In a hostile environment: â€Å"Harassment becomes unlawful where 1) enduring the offensive conduct becomesShow MoreRelatedThe State Should Stay Out of the Employment Relationship1504 Words   |  7 Pages2007 Federal election, the Rudd Labor Government began work on its promises to re-shape Australia’s industrial relations system.† (Riley amp; Sheldon 2008) However, some people think that the state should stay out the employment relationship. This essay will argue that the state should stay in the employment relationship because it makes the roles and has the rights and responsibilities for the employee and employer in working environment. The state is an influential actor in employment relationsRead MoreOrganizational Success Is Increasingly Becoming Dependent On An Organization1627 Words   |  7 Pagesthe adoption of diversity management programs has been growing steadily due to the rate at which diversit y is becoming prevalent and essential in the workplace (Simmons and Rowland, 2011). This essay critically evaluates and discusses organizational approaches to managing equality and diversity. 1.1 Purpose of essay The overall aim of this essay is to critically evaluate organizational approaches to managing equality and diversity. Snape and Redman (2001) stated that even among top and globalRead MoreGender Inequality in Workforce904 Words   |  4 Pagesgender inequality has been ongoing debate in the workforce for many years (Lannin 2009). Many people argue that there are inequality in earnings and glass ceiling (ibid.). Therefore, this essay will analyze the gender inequality in the Australian workforce and it will also suggest solutions. Wage Discrimination There is no doubt that income inequality has increased in the last two decades (Hiau 2005). According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS, Cat 6203.0) showed that on average hourlyRead MoreThe Issues Of Discrimination And Harassment1575 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction This essay explores the issues of Discrimination and Harassment, in particular, the legal obligations, protection and resources available to human service clients, within Australia and specifically Queensland. A particular level of knowledge is required by human services workers in regards to the judiciary system, legal accountabilities and statutory obligations, to provide the most appropriate level of care for clients of social workers. By describing how the legal framework is relevantRead MoreGender Inequality And Gender Equality1673 Words   |  7 PagesGender inequality means unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals based on their gender. It results from differences in socially constructed gender roles. Inequality is an issue that has a negative effect on both the individual and society. This essay will outline some of the issues that women face in different societies devoted and devolving like inequality in education, work and violence and it will also highlight some of women rights that able the women to have more power (world Economic ForumRead MoreThe Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Essay1349 Words   |  6 Pagestheir race, color, religion, national origin, or sex. These categories are commonly referred to as, â€Å"protected classes.† Individuals protected by the EEOC include women, minority populations, and groups related to national origin, persons over the age of 40, persons with disabilities, veterans, and religious affiliations (EEOC, n.d.). For the purposes of this essay, I will focus on how leaders should address discriminatory practices in the workplace environment and how leaders can create a cultureRead MoreGender Discrimination In The Workplace1867 Words   |  8 PagesDiscrimination in the workplace, specifically gender discrimination is a significant matter, impacting women all over the world. Defined by the International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention No. 11, discrimination is ‘Any distinction, ex clusion or preference made on the basis of race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin, which has the effect of nullifying or impairing equality of opportunity or treatment in employment or occupation.’. As stated by GillianRead MoreWhen People Think Of Discrimination, They Tend To Think1254 Words   |  6 Pagespeople think of discrimination, they tend to think back to older times of slavery, racism, and an underdeveloped country. Sadly, discrimination actual plays a large role in the workplace of today. Discrimination is defined as â€Å"treating a person or particular group of people differently, especially in a worse way from the way in which you treat other people, because of their skin color, sex, sexuality, etc.† according to the Cambridge Dictionary (Cambridge University Press 1). Discrimination comes in manyRead MoreGender Discrimination in the Workplace765 Words   |  4 Pages Gender discrimination can cover a wide variety of social prejudice. Throughout much of world history, even American history women have been treated as second class citizens. In the United States women have had to fight for rights such as the right to vote, or own land. These are just a few examples of the many injustices that women have had to face. Men have held the position of leadership, and power throughout history when it comes to almost everything. Men would even decide to whom a womenRead MoreEssay about Bullying and Harassment1373 Words   |  6 PagesManaging bullying and harassment in the workplace When most of us hear the term ‘bullying’ we seem to reflect back on childhood memories of the schoolyard bully tormenting others for self-amusement, much to the distain of others around them. Unfortunately this seems not to be the only time such behaviour occurs. Workplace bullying and harassment can be defined as ‘Offending, socially excluding someone or negatively affecting someone’s work tasks. It can occur repeatedly and regularly over a period

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Contemporary Sociological Theory Free Essays

Contemporary Sociological Theory Final Exam Jurgen Habermas’ Theory of Communicative Action sought to explain this contemporary sociological thinker’s ideas on system and the life-world. The meaning of this â€Å"life-world† for Habermas, meant: one’s own personal space, including personal identity and consciousness. â€Å"It is the lived realm of informal, culturally-grounded understandings and mutual accommodations. We will write a custom essay sample on Contemporary Sociological Theory or any similar topic only for you Order Now † (Wikipedia) The life-world goes on to function through norms and beliefs of the society. Everyone in the society plays their role, which is based on their personal identity, and the society goes on functioning as a system. The system includes a chain of commands dealing with politics, economics, etc. Consequently, this leads to a colonization of the life-world. The system is an impersonal structure that entails organization and functionality. Because it is based on functions within social, educational and environmental policies, as well as markets (Parsons’ AGIL), there must be a form of order for it to run smoothly. The political institutions do not allow the individual to just think of himself, it essentially leaves a demand for all to work together as a whole. The life-world is based more on happiness and order within. When the functions of the system and life-world collide the life-world becomes colonized. Things are harder to be rationalized within the system because barriers are formed in the lines of communication. The struggle to please one’s own self and the need for order in the political realm causes a conflict of interest in modern society. The two entities are becoming rationalized as both continue to evolve. The life-world will continue to be hindered as the system continues to block lines of communication. As modern society goes on, the struggle within one’s self and the need to continually stabilize society will eventually cause a greater problem that will require further research beyond that of Jurgen Habermas. 4. In Michael Foucault’s Discipline Punish, he sought to explain his theory of surveillance within contemporary society. He does this by using the idea of the Panopticon as an example. The panopticon is a structure, created by Jeremy Bentham, which is built in a way that allows all angles to be easily viewed. The design, which is a circular, spherical building, allows those conducting the surveillance to see everything without having to worry about corners and non visible spots. The subjects that are being viewed never actually know when they are being specifically watched due to the construction of the building. It is also built so that the viewer cannot be easily seen. This structure is mainly existent in prisons but can also be used within schools, factories and military structures. Surveillance is defined as being the â€Å"continual observation of a person or group, especially on suspected of doing something illegal. (Encarta Dictionary) The most obvious example would be in the prison system where prisoners are being watched by prison wardens and guards. Cameras are set up at ever imaginable angle to monitor the behavior of the inmates. These cameras are active 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, recording every move of every prisoner. Furthermore, if the guard were to stand in the middl e of the panopticon, he would also be able to view all angles easily without too much movement. Foulcault formulated his theory of contemporary society, in relation to the panopticon. The idea of total surveillance represents power in society. The individual is constantly being watched which consequently alters their behavior. Because the surveillance is constant and unknown, we develop a state of paranoia within ourselves and never feel completely alone unless we are absolutely sure that we are in a private space. Foulcault’s interpretation extends to the acts of the government: â€Å"The role of legislation allows the means of authority to spread without need for one central authority figure. This advocates the self monitoring society which in essence is panopticism. † (Gieser) It is said that because the government is seen as the overseer. We, the citizens, develop our own sense of self-surveillance that in turn, satisfies the surveillance tactic. Foucault felt that this panoptic ordeal â€Å"dehumanize[d] and strip[ped] the population of their power†. (Gieser) Thus, it leaves us with no actual sense of normalcy and security. 5. The idea of culture industry was created by Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer of the Frankfurt School. Culture industry is simply the use of manufactured goods in pop culture to influence society, thus causing society to be passive and not worrying about economical woes. Society develops unnecessary wants and needs while capitalism is masked and flourishing. This form of culture molds the idea of what’s important to society through mass production and ignores what works for the individual. Thus, a sense of uniqueness is lost. The Frankfurt School felt that this was an important way of trying to understand modern capitalist society because it was clearly going in that direction, at the time and now. Karl Marx inspired these beliefs through his own works and encouraged the Frankfurt School to expose capitalists. They did this by using ancient examples that proved that these frivolous items being praised were only there to mask the fact that we, the people were being manipulated and controlled. Exposing society to the control was supposed to encourage them to break free and regain their senses of self. The focus was on capitalism because it was strengthening its hold onto society at a constant rate. Adorno felt that through exposing these capitalist tactics, the cycle would reverse, causing individuals to gain there personality back, but that did not happen. Capitalism has only flourished and become more severe. Modern society is evolving and as that happens; more capitalist tactics are being created. Thus culture industry is doing nothing but becoming stronger. The Frankfurt School took the time out to enlighten the masses but despite the fact, capitalism prevails. References Geiser, Brenton. All Eyes on You. http://ustorage. ucsb. edu/~brentongieser/index. html â€Å"Surveillance (n. )†. Encarta Online Dictionary. Dec. 14, 2007. http://encarta. msn. com/dictionary_1861717276/surveillance. html http://www. wikipedia. com How to cite Contemporary Sociological Theory, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Leadership Examples Log Essays - Coach, Sports, Captain,

Leadership Examples Log Leadership Examples Log Wednesday, August 23, 2000-The head football coach, Joe Hollis, shortened practice today because he said that the team was tired and needed some extra rest to make sure our legs are fresh for our first game on September 2, against North Carolina State. I think this displays his specialized role as a leader. That kind of decision rests singularly on his shoulders, players and coaches follow his decision because of his specialized role as the head football coach. Thursday, August 24, 2000- I read an article in Sports Illustrated about my favorite baseball player, Greg Maddux, pitcher for the Atlanta Braves. It discussed how well respected he was among his teammates and other players in the Major Leagues as well. I felt that this demonstrated a shared influence leadership within his social system. He is not in a specialized role, he is simply looked at as a good role model and a wise baseball player. Friday, August 25, 2000-Our team captains called a team meeting to ask the younger players to be mature about going to class, and handling non-football duties maturely so that the focus can be on football when the right time comes. This is somewhat of a mixture between specialized roles and shared influence. The captains have specialized roles as leaders, but the way they obtained these roles was from gaining respect in the shared influence environment. Tuesday, August 29, 2000-I have noticed that some of the assistant coaches on the football team use different influence processes when providing instruction for their players. For example, the receiver coach's players seem to be motivated to do things by indifferent compliance, meaning they are basically in a bad mood when they are told to do something. On the other hand, the outside linebackers coach seems able to make his players not necessarily enjoy practicing, but practice in a much better disposition. Thursday, August 31, 2000- In my night class, a girl in my newly formed group was telling me how hectic her job was. She described her job in the Human Resource department as reactive and unable to be scheduled. She says that on top of her daily, quarterly and annual tasks that she works on every day, she must constantly deal with small and large daily problems that arise. Some of these include, replacing sick employees, making claims on insurance policies, and screening potential employees. Monday September 2, 2000-The daily professional interactions of a head football coach, for example coach Hollis mentioned before are obviously wide ranging. I observe almost daily how must relay his instructions to secretaries, assistant coaches, and support staff. He is subject to taking instructions from the president of the university, the NCAA and the school's compliance coordinator. Another role is providing the media with comments on what is going on with the team. Perhaps his main role is to coach the players. They would be considered the employees in that situation. Tuesday, September 5, 2000-- Bibliography Waltner, Charles: Integrating Technology Into the Corporations IP networks PP. 87-92: Southwester Publishing Co., 1997 Psychology Essays