Saturday, February 15, 2020

Technical description of the Slvador Dali painting metamorphose de Essay

Technical description of the Slvador Dali painting metamorphose de narcisse - Essay Example The essay "Salvador Dali - Metamorphose de Narcisse" explores the painting of Salvador Dali, Metamorphose de Narcisse. He deliberately cultivated delusions similar to those of paranoiacs in the cause of wresting hallucinatory images from his conscious mind. Dali's images - his bent watches, his figures, halfhuman, half chest of drawers – have made him the most famous of all Surrealist painters†. Typically painting images he saw in dreams or nightmares and consistently pushing the envelope in terms of subject matter, Dali had a wide range of interests that became reflected in his artwork. These characteristics can be more fully understood by examining one of his better-known paintings such as â€Å"Metamorphose de Narcisse† which translates to â€Å"Metamorphosis of Narcissus† in English. Created in 1937, this painting falls without question into the Surrealist style. Part of the definition of Surrealism relies upon a heavy fantasy content, typically as it i s revealed through the images of the subconscious, as well as an established connection with the world of which we are all aware. â€Å"The Surrealists tried to create a new art mythology by fusing conscious with unconscious levels of the mind". Through this terminology, it becomes immediately apparent that the work of Sigmund Freud, who had but recently published his ideas regarding the three-tiered nature of the human mind, was tremendously important to the creation of Surrealist art. As the above definition indicates, most artists, including Dali.

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis - Assignment Example s to be drawn in some cases where procedures are considered unethical, especially, where couples create savior siblings aimed at saving a seriously sick sibling. Even though the engineered child does not get physically harmed and does not benefit, the implication of this procedure is morally unethical. It is not fair for couples to have a second child with the sole purpose of serving as a donor while disregarding his/her right to equality. Having a donor child resembles slavery where the savior child is regarded the slave while the parents are the slave-owner. The parents own the child and use him/her as a commodity but, the child is a person who requires respect. There also has to be a limit to this because there are higher risks of long-term and psychological impact on the second child. The child’s identity is likely to be impaired because of being viewed as a tool that is solely designed to save another life. The child is also likely to lack self-respect and self-esteem as he/she is likely to get praised for being a means to achieve a particular end rather than for his/her individual value. A line should also be drawn in cases where parents abuse PGD to meet their selfish needs of creating a perfect child. Avoiding genetic disorders to protect someone’s life is one thing but, it is another to transform a person artificially (Hayes, 2008). Some parents pick traits that they find to be beneficial and get rid of those that they find imperfect, so they satisfy their goals of not having socially and financially burdensome child. The reasoning is wrong because it is a direct discrimination against disabled children. Ethically, this also violates the core value of humanity by treating a child as a means towards an inappropriate end. The child’s well-being is ignored while the parents’ economic and social ends are being pursued. Designing a child destructs their will and fails to treat them humanely (Cummings, 2009). PGD has given couples opportunities to

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Conflict Theory Essay -- Black Man, Minorities, Correctional System

According to Robbins et al (2006), there are various concepts that are important in understanding conflict theory. These concepts include conflict, power, minority, and change. Demico Booth writes and reflects on the various aspects of his life that occurred during his incarceration, release and re incarceration. Throughout Booth’s book he reflects on why the percentage of Black men in prison continues to grow at alarming rates. Through the concepts associated with conflict theory the events leading up to Booths incarceration on both occasions can be analyzed. â€Å"Conflict is a clash or struggle between opposing forces or interests,† (Robbins et al, 2006, p.66). Throughout this time in his life Booth had to experience various clashes and struggles with people and system that he had no control over. The first direct conflict Booth had to experience was with his father. Booth was forced to provide for his younger siblings because he father and stepmother were drug addicts. Instead of being worried about providing for their family his parents were worried about sustaining their habits. What started as a positive scapegoat for Booth turned out to be a negative one. As Booth (2006) states: They would give him some crack on credit, and he and my stepmother would lock themselves in their bedroom and get high. By me being the oldest of my siblings, this especially affected me because I knew what was going on. And since my needs were greater than my younger siblings, I decided to go out and get a job so I could make some money to buy food and clothes for myself and for my brothers and sisters (p.15). Booth continues explaining this conflict by making it clear that in his father’s eyes he providing for his siblings was not a... ...standards and are on the same playing field in all aspects. As Fred McKissack (2008), questions â€Å"Exactly how can we be in post-racial America when nearly 40 percent of black children under the age of 5 live at or below the poverty line? How are we in post-racial America when the level of school segregation for Hispanics is the highest in the forty years and segregation of blacks is back to levels not seen since the late 1960s?† McKissack (2008) also points out that the employment rate for blacks has been twice that for whites and in 2006, 20.3% percent of blacks were not covered by health insurance, compared to only 10.8 percent of whites. In conclusion in order to consider itself a post racial society the United States must work on improving things such as education, healthcare, and unemployment for African Americans as well as other minorities.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough

Introduction:Take that part of the history, when the first interactions between the native Indians and the British settlers. Mostly, it began with the initial hesitation, mutual distrust, pitched battles ensued, lots of bloodshed resulted with loss of human lives on either side, the true and noble emotions of the human beings played their part, love episodes between the white man and black beauties happened. Did it help to smooth the relations between then tribes and the settlers, or worsened the situation resulting in more mistrust and bloodshed. Many constrains come in the path of writing the history of the sixteenth century and what really happened in Jamestown, in the absence of authentic historical records   as for the conditions and contributions of the native Indians. British historians have sidetracked many facts, according to Helen Rountree and she has tendered archeological evidences to prove her findings.The Lives Changed:Pocahontas is regarded as the most famous Native American who ever lived, hailed from the native tribes. But as documented by the historians, during the process of settlement of Jamestown and for two subsequent centuries, the great Tribal Chiefs, Powhatan and Opechancanough took the front seats. Pocahontas demanded lots of attention for different reasons. Opechancanough captured the British captain John Smith. To save his skin and perhaps his life from his unpredictable captor, John Smith came out with certain original ideas to impress his captors in that land of uncertainties for the early adventurous settlers.He gave his captor a compass, and told him the details about a spherical earth which revolved around the sun. He had apprehensions whether his captor was a cannibal in which case Smith’s life was in danger. That was a wrong assumption– he was no cannibal but he ‘knew’ that the earth was flat. John Smith was duly presented before the paramount chief Powhatan. The meeting had positive results as for John Smith. He got an opportunity to meet Powhatan’s daughter Pocahontas. Thinking him to be a good individual and believing that he had a firm ally, he released Smith from captivity. Within the next few decades his people were the subjects of the British Crown.The 400th anniversary of Jamestown’s founding:Helen Rountree is a nationally renowned scholar of Native Americans. Historians could not get much of the events that shaped the lives of Powhatan or Opechancanough, but Rountree’s book fills up this lacuna.  Ã‚   Pocahontas steals the limelight as for the remarkable life that she lived. All the three historical figures have been adequately covered in the book. The initial introduction, the interaction period and the final confrontation between the natives with the English settlers have been taken into account. An interesting turn to the events of the era was the intriguing diplomacy following     the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe. This personal event was against the social traditions then practiced by the tribal. During Opechancanough’s reign the native sovereignty came to an end.The essential difference between the writing and recordings of the British Historians and Helen Rountree:The book written from the ethno-historical angle, Rountree has utilized two important tools required for honestly constructing historical facts—anthropology and written records. The writers among the white settles did their own job. Their writings remained unchallenged, whether right or wrong, because there was not another writer, who could tell facts. By no account English can be termed as heroes. They were Tassantassas (strangers), squatters and invaders. The truth must be told, feels Rountree and she has constructed her recordings in an authentic manner on the basis of facts and evidences.When romance scores over history:History is an interesting subject; history with romance is very interesting. Historical fiction novels are good playing ground for the imaginative movies to sprout. For one thing, the historical characters lay quietly in their graves and they are not likely to challenge your version of their romance. John Smith, known in his day as a bad boy, would not have done anything good for the fifteen years young Princess Pocahonas, the daughter of Chief Powhatan. Did she play a role to save John Smith’s who was imprisoned by the Tribal Chief—can’t say but her contribution to lessen the tension between the colonists and the natives was noticeable and mentioned prominently by the historians. She married Jon Rolfe, a British nobleman. She learned to speak English. She adopted the Christian religion.She moved to London and became a lady. In the meantime, Powhatan tried and did his best for unity between the natives and colonists. He seemed to have succeeded for a while but later the conflicts resumed.The systematic and scientific approach to writing by Helen Rountree:Rountree wri tes without any prejudice, and calls spade a spade. She has termed the British settlers as invaders and rightly so. The book intensely covers the period from 1607 to 1644.She has highlighted three important points, a) Virginia Company’s settlement in Jamestown, b) deterioration of relations between colonists and natives and c) the wars of 1622 and 1644. She has given detailed description about the pre-invasion life of the tribes, highlighting the importance of  Ã‚   rituals in their life. She has mentioned the different lifestyles and environments, and shown how values were entirely different. The contents of the book give the overall picture of the founding of Jamestown from the Indian point of view.â€Å"Jamestown's founding approaches, nationally renowned scholar of Native Americans, Helen Rountree, provides in a single book the definitive biographies of these three important figures. In their lives we see the whole arc of Indian experience with the English settlers â⠂¬â€ from the wary initial encounters presided over by Powhatan, to the uneasy diplomacy characterized by the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe, to the warfare and eventual loss of native sovereignty that came during Opechancanough's reign.† (Three†¦.)  Rountree, with her scholarly approach gives facts about seventeenth-century Powhatan culture. It is being appreciated by the scholars for the wealth of understanding it brings.   The lay readers like it for the personable prose and lively narrative structure. Her interpretations are backed up by careful, acceptable research-based reasoning and extensive knowledge.To get the truth, sieving the biased and none-sided approach of the British historians is a tough task and Rountree has managed her job well, despite hard constrains. Powhatan lacked a written language. She has relied upon evidence derived from archaeology. She has highlighted Powhatan’s own vocabulary of seasons linked to different forms of food g etting. One feels of getting the other side of the story—the real story! â€Å"In particular, the three main subjects of the book all begin to emerge—Powhatan and Openchancanough from their relative obscurity, and Pocahontas from the myths that have surrounded her since at least the nineteenth century. Just in time for 2007, they appear with all of the complexity of character and motivation that the history books have typically reserved for only a few of the â€Å"strangers† like John Smith.† (Virginia†¦.)Hollywood portrayals:â€Å"When Disney Studios released the 1995 movie, Pocahontas, Dr. Rountree subsequently devoted many interviews to debunking the myths surrounding the young girl who, today, plays such a pivotal role in the American imagination.† Recently Hollywood movie â€Å"The New World† is released. This movie is an adult version of the Pocahontas and John Smith romance.  Ã‚   The four hundredth anniversary of Jamestownâ₠¬â„¢s founding was inaugurated, May 2006, that will last for 18 months.Conclusion:Helen Rountree’s credits and achievements through this book can be summed up thus. She has thrown fresh light on the life and culture of the native Indians. One is able to understand Jamestown in a better perspective. The indigenous voices are heard. She has shown how important are the lives of Pocahonas, Powhatan and Openchancanough to understand what happened in and to Jamestown in the sixteenth century.References Cited:Rountree, Helan C. Book: Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough: Three Indian Lives Changed by Jamestown. Publisher: University of Virginia Press; Edition (June 15, 2006) ISBN-10: 0813925967: ISBN-13: 978-0813925967Article: Three Indian Lives Changed by Jamestown. Target.comwww.target.com/gp/product/0813925967) Retrieved on 17th September 2007.Virginia Magazine of History and Biography: Article: Powhatan, Opechancanough: Three Indian Lives Changed by Jamestown...www.vahistorical. org/publications/review_rountree.htm – 9k – Retrieved on 17th September 17, 2007

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Counseling Someone with a Pornography Addition - 2379 Words

Counseling Someone with a Pornography Addition In our culture sex is a prevalent problem and issue more in the last twenty ears with the changing times and growing of technology. One of the biggest issues with a sex addition comes an addiction to pornography. Which back in the seventies and eighties was that big of an issue because all they had was Playboy magazines or the Sears catalog, then came the age of the Victoria Secret catalogs. None of these were as a monumental problem for young men as what we have today The Internet, which brings in Internet pornography. Young men today literally have access to see thousands of pictures and videos at their fingertips and all they have to do is type a few words into Google. It is also so easy to get addiction to pornography today by how women dress, the TV/Movies portray women, and how men can so easily view women as sex objects. Not all young men have a problem with pornography but it is still a big issue. With Pornography addition the ad dition will gradually grow and grow and you will fall deeper into it and sometimes it seems you cannot escape. It could start as simple as just watching â€Å"PG-13† or â€Å"R† rated movies. To growing to having to watching multiple porn videos every night for many years finding a small amount of pleasure each time. Puberty is usually when the issues start to occur because this is the time in a young boys life when he starts to notice girls and getting attracted. In some books I have read they point toShow MoreRelatedSexual Assault Essay examples1113 Words   |  5 Pagesthe jurisdiction where the assault takes place, which vary considerably, and are influenced by local social and cultural attitudes. Every year, an estimated 300,000 women are raped and 3.7 million are confronted with unwanted sexual activity. In addition, of the approximately 900,000 children who are maltreated each year, 9% are sexually abused. 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There were four reasons found for police inaction with this crime: domestic violence was seen as a private matter, female victims were often uncooperative, and arrest of t he breadwinner would hurtRead More Internet Pornography Addiction Essay4347 Words   |  18 Pages Pornography on the Internet is affordable, available, and abundant. One can easily find websites for viewing this type of material. Although the reports on the actual number of these sites vary, the availability and accessibility of the sites are rarely disputed. Some critics of this form of expression or form of obscenity believe that the pornography itself can cause pornography addictions. Internet pornography does not produce addicts, but rather the propensity to be a pornography addict

Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Air Pollution in Canada - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2070 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2018/12/30 Category Environment Essay Type Report Level High school Tags: Canada Essay Nature Essay Did you like this example? Introduction Air pollution is one of the environmental issues facing communities in Canada. Air pollution problem in Canada arises from the accumulation of airborne compounds and biological matter in the atmosphere that causes harm to human lives, the environment, and the entire Canadian economy. In Canada, the factors that contribute to air pollution include the burning of fossils for energy that is used both domestically and running the industries. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Air Pollution in Canada" essay for you Create order Fossil fuels constitute part of Canadas primary source of fuel for Canadas population even though the federal government is cognizant of the consequences that they have on the environment. The air pollution problem in Canada is a persistent problem due to climatic changes, an increase in urbanization, and the continued reliance on motor vehicles as the major source of transport (Wirth, 2000). The Alberta Oil Sands, (large deposits of bitumen), is the main contributor to Canadas air pollution problem. Therefore, the air quality of Northern Alberta is much poorer than those of other areas with similar population densities. Other urban areas such as Toronto face environmental issues that are related to air pollution because of the industrial chemicals (Taylor McMillan, 2013). The city of Montreal falls below the World Health Organizations endorsed maximum level of concentration of particulate substances in the air. Other cities such as Hamilton, Laval, Kamloops and Saskatoon also exceed the recommended maximum level of particulate matter in the air. The province of Quebec was considered the leading source of emission of fine particulate substances from the human activities in Canada, most of which arise from heating wood (Lavigne, Villeneuve Cakmak, 2012). History of Air pollution in Canada Sulphur oxides were the first of the Criteria Air Contaminants (CACs) that received noteworthy attention from an environmental viewpoint. The scientific research studies in the 1970s decade started linking Sulphur dioxide to the acidification of the marine life forms in North America to show that long-range transit of Sulphur oxides was possible. Acid rain, which was caused mainly by Sulphur dioxide, was the main air pollution issue in Canada from during the 1970s and 1980s (Heck Taylor, 2012). The first major domestic and international agreements on air issues in North America thus focused on issues of air pollution caused by Sulphur oxides and acid rain. However, prior to the domestic and international agreements on Sulphur oxides and acid rain in the 20th century, the Trail Smelter Case made sure that the issue of air pollution became a documented problem in Canada as early as the year 1896 when the first smelting plant was established (Taylor McMillan, 2013). As the smelter developed over the course of time, the locals started protesting over the smoke clouds, which led to the construction of a 100-meter-tall stack in 1920 to diffuse the gases further down the Columbia River Valley. This led to the damage of vegetation and crop cover on the United States side of the border, which was about 20 kilometers away (Heck Taylor, 2012). Ultimately, the protests by farmers and residents of the state of Washington in America persisted so much that Franklin Roosevelt, the President of the US at the time, wrote a letter directly to Richard Bennett, the Prime Minister, who was the Canadian Prime Minister at the time. A special tribunal was thus set up to evaluate whether the Trail Smelter would be required to stop wreaking havoc to the State of Washington in the coming future (Unsworth Ormrod, 2013). Morris Katz, a chemist from the National Research Council, was required to examine the Trail Smelter Case from a technical viewpoint and his effort on the impacts of the smelter plumes on the vegetation cover national recognition. The special tribunal that was set up to handle the case reported its discoveries in the year 1941 in a momentous decision. It stated that no state had the right to use or allow the use of its land in a way that caused injury by smoke plumes to the land of another nation (Heck Taylor, 2012). Both Canada and the US agreed to the outcome of the study, and 428,000 dollars was compensated to the farmers who were affected (Taylor McMillan, 2013). Using a Sulphur recapture and an Air Quality Management system, the issue was partially solved. Another industry was created to change the waste Sulphur oxides to sulfuric acid and fertilizers. Presently, the Trail Smelter recovers close to 91 percent of the Sulphur dioxide that would have been released into the atmosp here. Even though the industry created to recover the dissipated Sulphur dioxide did no mark the end of the situation, it set several precedents for air quality management (Stern, 2014). Stakeholders Involved In October 2012, the ministers of environment excluding Quebec agreed to the implementation of the country-wide Air Quality Management System (AQMS) that was an all-inclusive approach to reduce the amount of air pollution in Canada. AQMS is a result of an unprecedented partnership by the federal, provincial, and territorial governments and stakeholders, who have a duty to implement the system. Even though Quebec offers support to the goals of AQMS, it would not implement the System as it includes the federal industrial emission necessities that embody the Quebec clean Air regulation. However, Quebec works in collaboration with the other stakeholders in the development of other components of the system, most notably the air zones (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, 2014). Apart from the environment ministers, the national industry associations were also part of the stakeholders that take part in solving the Canadian Air pollution problem. First, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), which represents Canadas oil plants, oil sands, and natural gas plants has a crucial role to play in solving the air pollution problem. CAPP aims at advocating for and enabling economic competitiveness using safe environmental and socially responsible means. Secondly, the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) that help in transporting Canadas unprocessed oil and natural gas from the production regions to the markets all over Canada. The US helps in enhancing operating superiority in the business environment to minimize the dissipation of dangerous fumes (Government of Canada, 2015). Thirdly, the Canadian Fuels Association (CFA) helps in establishing guidelines for the safe handling of the petroleum products and providing information about the petroleum industry to the public. This helps in reducing the amount of gases emitted into the atmosphere as the public would be educated on the efficient means of using the petroleum products. The fourth association is the Canadian Vehicle Manufacturers Association (CVMA) that represents Canadas largest car manufacturers. CVMA helps to ensure that the motor vehicles are made efficient such that they emit less greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and are safe for the consumers. The fifth association is the Chemistry Industry Association of Canada, which helps in reducing the emissions that lead to climate change and in international accountability (Government of Canada, 2015). Resolution of the air pollution problem In 1991, both Canada and the US, in an International Joint Commission, signed the Canadian-US Air Quality Agreement that states that the interstate air pollution can be minimized effectively through joint and coordinated action that provides for the control of the emission of air pollutants in both nations. The Air Quality Agreement set objectives and goals for the mitigation of air pollution that could be attained cumulatively by set dates. In addition, the Air Quality Agreement provided for practical and effective policy tools that could be used to reduce the rate of emissions of the gases (Stern, 2014). Recent reports have shown that Canada has continued to reduce the emissions of Sulphur dioxide over the past 20 years thereby reducing the rate of acid rain. Ever since the agreement had been signed in the year 1991, the levels of Sulphur dioxide in Canadas atmosphere dropped by about 300 percent. Canada also managed to achieve the set goal of reducing the amount of nitrous oxide from the power plants. The provincial governments have taken more proactive roles in the reduction of air pollution in comparison to the federal governments. For instance, the country-wide Acid Rain Strategy was a collaborative effort of the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and it set the specific standards and limits on the emission of Sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxide produced by the industrial activities. The country-wide Acid Rain was a response to the southeastern Canada having the worst quality of air in the whole of Canada and a high rate of acid rain (Brook, 2010). Community development strategies Cities such as Ontario passed pieces of legislation and new regulations that helped to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere. In the year 1998, the city of Ontario established the Emissions Trading Regulation that established the limitations on the amount of Nitrous and Sulfur oxides into the atmosphere from the electric sector (Taylor McMillan, 2013). Secondly, the Drive Clean Program was introduced in 1999 to enforce compulsory vehicle inspection and maintenance with the aim of reducing smog. The city of Ontario also enforced a legislation that put a cap on the 7 main industrial sectors and another regulation updated the air standards to improve the environmental standards (Kozio?‚ Whatley, 2016). In addition, Ontario passed another directive in 2010 referred to as the Passenger Automobile and Light Truck Greenhouse Gas Emission, which introduced stringent standards for new cars prompting them to stay in line with the US national standards. The city of Quebec, just like Ontario, introduced the stringent standard in relation to air pollution. In the year 2011, Quebec introduced the Clean Air Regulation that enforced strict standards to reduce the emissions of nitrous and Sulphur oxides. The burners that would be used in the industries would have to be efficient such that they emit low levels of nitrous oxides. Moreover, Quebec requires every enterprise to report the emission of certain particulate matter in the atmosphere (Brook, 2010). Recommendations Besides the strict laws and regulations that have been passed by the provinces and the federal government, certain measures that every citizen in Canada can participate in to help reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that are emitted into the atmosphere should be applied. First, the residents of any city should use public transportation systems, walk or ride bicycles instead of personal cars when it is safer to do so. Secondly, whenever possible, people Canadian citizens should use the alternatives to the fossil fuel-powered machines and motor vehicles. For instance, fishermen can try using rowboats or sailboats instead of motorboats when fishing, and for domestic purposes, other citizens can use the push lawnmowers instead of the gasoline-powered ones. Thirdly, for anyone buying cars, checking and considering the fuel efficiency when buying a car and keep them properly maintained is crucial. It is also crucial for all the Canadians to plant more trees to enhance the urban forest ca nopy and improve the quality of air. Conclusion The air pollution problem in Canada arises from the accumulation of airborne compounds and biological matter in the atmosphere causing harm to the human lives, the environment, and the entire Canadian economy. The Alberta Oil Sands, which are the large deposits of bitumen, are the main contributor to Canadas air pollution problem, making the air quality of North Alberta poorer than other areas with similar population. The Stakeholders that have been involved in solving Canadas air pollution problem include the environment ministers and the National Industrial Associations. The air pollution issue in Canada has mainly been solved through passing of stringent laws and regulations that control the emission of the greenhouse gases. References Brook, R. D. (2010). Clearing the air. Circulation, 121, 2331-78. Canadian Council Of Ministers Of The Environment (CCME). AQMS. (2014).? Ccme.ca. Retrieved 10 December 2017, from https://www.ccme.ca/en/resources/air/aqms.html Government Of Canada. Key contacts and stakeholders Canada.ca. (2015).? Canada.ca. Retrieved 10 December 2017, from https://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change/briefing/keycontacts-stakeholders.html Heck, W. W., Taylor, O. C. (Eds.). (2012). Assessment of crop loss from air pollutants. Springer Science Business Media. Kozio‚, M. J., Whatley, F. R. (2016). Gaseous air pollutants and plant metabolism. Butterworth-Heinemann. Lavigne, E., Villeneuve, P. J., Cakmak, S. (2012). Air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma in Windsor, Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Santee Publique, 4-8. Stern, A. C. (Ed.). (2014). Fundamentals of air pollution. Elsevier. Taylor, E., McMillan, A. (Eds.). (2013). Air quality management: Canadian perspectives on a global issue. Springer Science Business Media. Unsworth, M. H., Ormrod, D. P. (2013). Effects of gaseous air pollution in agriculture and horticulture (No. 32). Butterworth-Heinemann. Wirth, J. D. (2000). Smelter smoke in North America: the politics of transborder pollution. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas.

Monday, December 23, 2019

The Two Shopkeepers- Kantian Ethics and Consequentialism...

Liza G Prof. Williams Ethics 21 November 2011 The Two Shopkeepers One of the several topics covered in Kant’s Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals is the issued of two shopkeepers. One shopkeeper is honest with his customers in order to maintain a positive reputation and improve profits. The second one is honest because he thinks it is right and exercises his respect for the moral law. The first shopkeeper is motivated to be honest by the rewards of a positive reputation and profit. The second is motivated by respect for morally right action. Taking these motivations into consideration from the standpoint of Kantian ethics, it is clear which shopkeeper is acting right. Kant believes that actions that are†¦show more content†¦This notion of respect for persons has to do with treating people as having intrinsic value in and of themselves. The first shopkeeper is only acting to reward himself through the means of his customers. The fact that he is not rewarding customers with honesty, but complying with the moral law in ord er to reward himself with a good reputation and profit makes it so that he is not acting rightly. The second shopkeeper, however, is acting in accordance with Kant’s categorical imperative. This shopkeeper acts in accordance with the first formulation of universalizability. Unlike the first, the second shopkeeper is honest because he knows it is morally right. And this passes the universalizability test since an ideal society would inhabit people who act based on the sense of right and wrong, according to Kant. The keeper’s honesty is also reversible, because if others in a society acted out of respect for the moral law like he is, everyone would be acting right towards one another. He complies with the second formulation by his honesty with customers out of respect for the moral law. He is not only using the treatment of his customers as a means for honesty, but also as an end respect for the moral law. In other words, being honest with his customers is not only enabling him to act morally right, but allowing him to be evaluated as respecting the moral law (Singer 274-275). Now, aShow MoreRelatedKant And The Moral Law1451 Words   |  6 Pagesthe consequences that flow from it, but in the intention from which the act is done. This is due to the fact that , for Kant, what the motive behind your action is, matters. It is also important to note the difference between deontology and consequentialism. For consequentialists, results matter rather than the actions. An example of this is utilitarianism, where the main goal is to produce the best results regardless of the actions (like killing other people) even if this leads us to sacrifice